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American Psychiatric Association, (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). 5th ed. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Beat, (2017). Beat – Statistics for Journailsts. [Online]
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Brown, T.A. & Keel, P.K., (2015) Relationship Status Predicts Lower Restrictive Eating Pathology for Bisexual and Gay Men across 10-Year Follow Up. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 48(5), pp.700–707

Claes, L. et al., (2012). Male Eating Disorder Patients with and Without Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: A Comparison of Psychopathological and Personality Features. European Eating Disorders Review, 20(4), pp.335–338

Crisp, A. et al., (2006) Anorexia Nervosa in Males: Similarities and Differences to Anorexia Nervosa in Females. European Eating Disorders Review, 14(3), pp.163-67.

Fassino, S, Amianto, F, Gramaglia, C, Facchini, F, & Abbate Daga, G., (2004). Temperament and character in eating disorders: Ten years of studies. Eating and Weight Disorders, 9(2), 81-90.

Gueguen, J, Godart, N, Chambry, J, Brun‐Eberentz, A, Foulon, C, Divac, M, Huas, C., (2012). Severe anorexia nervosa in men: Comparison with severe AN in women and analysis of mortality. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 45(4), 537-545

Hay, A., (2017). Science of Eating Disorders – Eating Disorders & Socioeconomic Status in the Community. [Online] Available at:

Jones, W.R. & Morgan, J.F., (2010) Eating Disorders in Men: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Public Mental Health, 9(2), pp.23-31.

Keys, A. et al., (1950) The Biology of Human Starvation. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.

Klump, K, Bulik, C, Kaye, W, Treasure, J, & Tyson, E., (2009). Academy for eating disorders position paper: Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42(2), 97-103.

Lindblad, F., Lindberg, L. & Hjern, A., (2006) Anorexia Nervosa in Young Men: A Cohort Study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39(8), pp.662-66.

Lyons, G., (2018) An exploration of the lived experiences of men who have an eating disorder in the guise of anorexia or a-typical anorexia/EDNOS. PhD Thesis, University of Salford.

MacCaughelty, C., Wagner, R. & Rufino, K., (2016) Does Being Overweight or Male Increase a Patient’s Risk of Not Being Referred for an Eating Disorder Consult? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 49(10), pp.963–966.

Martínez-Marín, M. D. & Martínez, C., (2019). Negative and Positive Attributes of Gender Stereotypes and Gender Self-Attributions: A Study with Spanish Adolescents. Child Indicators Research, Volume 12, pp. 1043-1063.

Muhlheim, L., (2020). Very Well Mind – Understanding Male Eating Disorders. [Online]
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National Centre for Eating Disorders, (2019). National Centre for Eating Disorders – Eating Disorders in Males. [Online]
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N.H.S Digital, (2013) Hospital Episode Statistics, Admitted Patient Care, England – 2012-13 [NS]. [Online] Available at:

N.H.S Digital, (2020) Hospital Episode Statistics, Admitted Patient Care, England – 2019-20 [NS]. [Online] Available at:

Núñez-Navarro, A, Agüera, Z, Krug, I, Jiménez-Murcia, S, Sánchez, I, Araguz, N,  Fernández-Aranda, F. (2012). Do Men with Eating Disorders Differ from Women in Clinics, Psychopathology and Personality? European Eating Disorders Review, 20(1), 23-31..

The Office for National Statistics, (2016) Sexual identity, UK: 2015 – Experimental Official Statistics on Sexual Identity in the UK in 2015 by Region, Sex, Age, Marital Status, Ethnicity and NS-SEC. [Online] Available at:

Priory Group, (2014). Priory Group – Eating Disorder Statistics. [Online]
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Raevuori, A. et al., (2009) Epidemiology of Anorexia Nervosa in Men: A Nationwide Study of Finnish Twins. PLoS ONE, 4(2),

Richardson, C, & Paslakis, G. (2020). Men’s experiences of eating disorder treatment: A qualitative systematic review of men‐only studies. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing, 2020-07-23.

Time to change (2021). Let’s end mental health discrimination.

Treasure, J, & Alexander, J. (2013). Anorexia nervosa a recovery guide for sufferers, families and friends (2nd ed.). London ; New York: Routledge.

UK National Centre for Eating Disorders. (2019). National Centre for Eating Disorders – Eating Disorders in Males. [Online]
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World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders diagnostic criteria for research. V 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization.